Kisspeptin and its cognate receptor, GPR54 (kisspeptin receptor, Kiss-R) have recently been recognized potent regulators of reproduction in vertebrates. In non-mammalian vertebrates, kisspeptin-Kiss-R homologous and paralogous genes have been identified with their conserved functions in reproduction. Teleosts possess two paralogous genes encoding kisspeptin (kiss1 and kiss2) and Kiss-R (kissr1 and kissr2). Identification of the location and the distribution of the kisspeptin-Kiss-R systems as well as their connectivity with other neural system in the brain is important to elucidate the role of kisspeptin in neuroendocrine functions. This review focuses on the comparative aspects of neuroanatomical distribution of two kisspeptin-Kiss-R systems in the brain of teleosts and their potential roles in reproductive and non-reproductive functions. Finally, based on the association of kisspeptin types with tachykinin peptides, their potential neuromodulatory roles in the brain of teleost will be discussed. The existence of two kisspeptin systems suggests their independent functions in the brain of teleosts. Understanding of teleosts Kiss1 and Kiss2 systems will provide insight into the physiological and evolutional significance of multiple kisspeptin systems in the vertebrate brain.