Intracellular Wolbachia infections are extremely common in arthropods and exert profound control over the reproductive biology of the host. However, very little Is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms which mediate these interactions with the host. We examined protein synthesis by Wolbachia in a Drosophila host in vivo by selective metabolic labelling of prokaryotic proteins and subsequent analysis by 1D and 2D gel electrophoresis. Using this method we could identify the major proteins synthesized by Wolbachia in ovaries and testes of flies. Of these proteins the most abundant was of low molecular weight and showed size variation between Wolbachia strains which correlated with the reproductive phenotype they generated in flies. Using the gel systems we employed it was not possible to identify any proteins of Wolbachia origin in the mature sperm cells of infected flies.