Analysis of the fate of valuable bioactive polyphenols during commercial winemaking and their partitioning into wastes for valorization

Xueqing Liu, Anthony L. Robinson, Greg Jarratt, Victoria S. Haritos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Food processing is one of the largest and most important industries globally, but loses around 30% as waste, hence reduction and utilisation of food waste are imperative for sustainability. Winemaking research has focused on chemical analyzes of polyphenols in wine or selected wastes but has the lacked holistic investigation required to deliver sustainable solutions to food waste. Here, the partitioning of key bioactive polyphenols from grapes into wine and wastes during winemaking was investigated by measuring their concentrations at accessible stages for four red grape varieties. A mass balance was achieved between grapes and downstream product concentrations of total phenols and trans-piceid but anthocyanins, quercetin and quercetin glucoside were not balanced for most varieties. Anthocyanins were likely degraded during winemaking as the concentrations in wine and wastes were notably lower than grapes, whereas quercetin glucoside underwent hydrolysis forming quercetin which was concentrated in wine and wastes compared with grape levels. By analysis of the aglycone and O-glucoside forms, and considering phenolic solubilities and bio-transformations, the fates of key polyphenols during commercial winemaking were identified. Importantly, this study highlighted that certain winemaking wastes, such as wine lees and marc from particular grape varieties are rich sources for recovery of valuable nutraceutical polyphenols or anthocyanins as functional food dyes. The mass balance approach used here could be applied to other food processing industries to evaluate the effect of processing steps on concentrations of bioactive polyphenols in final products.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100104
Number of pages10
JournalCleaner Waste Systems
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2023


  • Anthocyanins
  • Mass balance
  • Polyphenol O-glucosides
  • Quercetin
  • Resveratrol
  • Sustainability

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