Analysis of spectral estimation algorithms for accurate heart rate and respiration rate estimation using an ultra-wideband radar sensor

Kareeb Hasan, Malikeh P. Ebrahim, Hongqiang Xu, Mehmet R. Yuce

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review


Non-contact vital sign monitoring has been an important research topic recently due to the ability to monitor patients for an extended period especially during sleep without requiring uncomfortable attachments. Radar is a popular sensor for vital sign monitoring research. Various algorithms have been proposed for estimating respiration rate and heart rate from the radar data. But many algorithms rely on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to convert time domain signal to the frequency domain and estimate vital signs, despite FFT having limitation of frequency resolution being inverse of the time interval of data sample. However, there are other spectral estimation algorithms, which have not been much researched into the suitability of vital sign estimation using radar signals. In this paper, we compared eight different types of spectral estimation algorithms, including FFT, for respiration rate and heart rate estimation of stationary subjects in a controlled environment. The evaluation is based on extensive data consisting of different stationary subject positions. Considering the results, the eligibility of algorithms other than FFT for respiration rate and heart rate estimation is demonstrated. Using this work, researchers can get an overview on which algorithm is suitable for their work without the need to review individual algorithms separately.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 10 Oct 2022


  • Band-pass filters
  • Estimation
  • Finite impulse response filters
  • Heart rate
  • Heart Rate
  • IR-UWB radar
  • Monitoring
  • Radar
  • Respiration Rate
  • Signal processing algorithms

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