Analysis of perinatal gene expression: Hormone response elements mediate activation of a lacZ reporter gene in liver of transgenic mice

Lluís Montoliu, Julie A. Blendy, Timothy J. Cole, Günther Schütz

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25 Citations (Scopus)


The transcription of genes encoding gluconeogenic enzymes is tightly regulated during the perinatal period. These genes are induced by glucagon (cAMP) and glucocorticoids and repressed by insulin. To address the role of cAMP and glucocorticoids in the physiological activation of genes encoding gluconeogenic enzymes in the perinatal period, transgenic mice have been generated with chimeric constructs containing the reporter gene lacZ under the control of hormone response elements. The activity of the transgene is restricted to the liver by the presence of the enhancers from the α- fetoprotein gene and its transcription is driven by a promoter that contains a TATA box linked to either cAMP response elements (CREs) or glucocorticoid response elements (GREs). We demonstrate cAMP and glucocorticoid regulation, liver-specific expression, and perinatal activation of the reporter gene. These data indicate that the CRE and GRE are, independently, necessary and sufficient to mediate perinatal gene activation. Perinatal activation was not impaired when a CRE reporter transgene was assayed in mice that contain a targeted mutation of the CRE-binding protein (CREB) gene, providing further evidence for functional redundancy among the members of the CREB/ATF gene family.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4244-4248
Number of pages5
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 9 May 1995
Externally publishedYes


  • cAMP
  • cAMP response element binding protein
  • glucocorticoids
  • tyrosine aminotransferase gene
  • β- galactosidase

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