Analysis of interacting uncertainties in on-site and off-site activities: implications for hybrid construction

Mehrdad Arashpour, Ron Wakefield, E. W. M. Lee, Ricky Chan, M. Reza Hosseini

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47 Citations (Scopus)


Interaction and integration of uncertainties in on-site and off-site project activities often result in the risk of delays and schedule overruns in hybrid construction projects. To address this problem, a holistic risk analysis approach that assesses the integrating impact of uncertainties on completion times is proposed. The results of the analysis show that growth in project size and work quantities intensifies pair and group interconnection of tasks within and between groups of on-site and off-site activities, resulting in lengthened completion times and deviations from project plans. Unavailability of resources, risk seeking attitudes, and workflow variability are other major contributors to the risk of late completion in hybrid construction. While project managers often analyze on-site and off-site uncertainties separately, practical implications of the research results suggest adoption of a holistic approach in which risk management practices in the two environments are integrated. This approach significantly improves tangible performance measures in projects.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1393-1402
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Project Management
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Decision making
  • Delay
  • Discrete event simulation
  • Integration
  • Performance measures
  • Prefabricated building elements
  • Project management
  • Resource availability
  • Workflow variance

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