Analysis of Clinical HIV-1 Strains with Resistance to Maraviroc Reveals Strain-Specific Resistance Mutations, Variable Degrees of Resistance, and Minimal Cross-Resistance to Other CCR5 Antagonists

Jacqueline Kaye Flynn, Paula Clarisa Ellenberg, Renee Duncan, Anne Ellett, Jingling Zhou, Jasminka Sterjovski, Kieran Cashin, Katharina Borm, Lachlan Robert Gray, Marilyn Lewis, Becky Jubb, Mike Westby, Benhur Lee, Sharon Lewin, Melissa Churchill, Michael John Roche, Paul Rene Gorry

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6 Citations (Scopus)


Maraviroc (MVC) is an allosteric inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry, and is the only CCR5 antagonist licensed for use as an anti-HIV-1 therapeutic. It acts by altering the conformation of the CCR5 extracellular loops, rendering CCR5 unrecognizable by the HIV-1 envelope (Env) glycoproteins. This study aimed to understand the mechanisms underlying the development of MVC resistance in HIV-1-infected patients. To do this, we obtained longitudinal plasma samples from eight subjects who experienced treatment failure with phenotypically verified, CCR5-tropic MVC resistance. We then cloned and characterized HIV-1 Envs (n = 77) from plasma of pretreatment (n = 36) and treatment failure (n = 41) samples. Our results showed variation in the magnitude of MVC resistance as measured by reductions in maximal percent inhibition of Env-pseudotyped viruses, which was more pronounced in 293-Affinofile cells compared to other cells with similar levels of CCR5 expression. Amino acid determinants of MVC resistance localized to the V3 Env region and were strain specific. We also observed minimal cross-resistance to other CCR5 antagonists by MVC-resistant strains. We conclude that 293-Affinofile cells are highly sensitive for detecting and measuring MVC resistance through a mechanism that is CCR5-dependent yet independent of CCR5 expression levels. The strain-specific nature of resistance mutations suggests that sequence-based diagnostics and prognostics will need to be more sophisticated than simple position scoring to be useful for managing resistance in subjects taking MVC. Finally, the minimal levels of cross-resistance suggests that recognition of the MVC-modified form of CCR5 does not necessarily lead to recognition of other antagonist-modified forms of CCR5.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1220-1235
Number of pages16
JournalAIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2017


  • antagonist
  • CCR5
  • envelope
  • HIV-1
  • Maraviroc
  • resistance

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