An Update in Antimicrobial Therapies and Infection Prevention in Pediatric Lung Transplant Recipients

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Abstract

Lung transplantation can offer life-prolonging therapy to children with otherwise terminal end-stage lung disease. However, infectious complications, like those experienced by their adult counterparts, are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. These include bacteria, viruses, and fungi that infect the patient pretransplant and those that may be acquired from the donor or by the recipient in the months to years posttransplant. An understanding of the approach to the management of each potential infecting organism is required to ensure optimal outcomes. In particular, emphasis on aggressive preoperative management of infections in pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis is important. These include multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, and Mycobacterium abscessus, the posttransplant outcome of which depends on optimal pretransplant management, including vaccination and other preventive, antibiotic-sparing strategies. Similarly, increasing the transplant donor pool to meet rising transplant demands is an issue of critical importance. Expanded-criteria donors—those at increased risk of blood-borne viruses in particular—are increasingly being considered and transplants undertaken to meet the rising demand. There is growing evidence in the adult pool that these transplants are safe and associated with comparable outcomes. Pediatric transplanters are therefore likely to be presented with increased-risk donors for their patients. Finally, numerous novel antibiotic-sparing therapeutic approaches are on the horizon to help combat infections that currently compromise transplant outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)539-553
Number of pages15
JournalPediatric Drugs
Volume20
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2018

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