An overview of particle-based numerical manifold method and its application to dynamic rock fracturing

Xing Li, Jian Zhao

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


This review summarizes the development of particle-based numerical manifold method (PNMM) and its applications to rock dynamics. The fundamental principle of numerical manifold method (NMM) is first briefly introduced. Then, the history of the newly developed PNMM is given. Basic idea of PNMM and its simulation procedure are presented. Considering that PNMM could be regarded as an NMM-based model, a comparison of PNMM and NMM is discussed from several points of view in this paper. Besides, accomplished applications of PNMM to the dynamic rock fracturing are also reviewed. Finally, some recommendations are provided for the future work of PNMM.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)684-700
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2019


  • Dynamic rock fracturing
  • Numerical manifold method (NMM)
  • Numerical modeling
  • Particle-based numerical manifold method (PNMM)

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