An ontology-based framework for bridging learning design and learning content

Colin Knight, Dragan Gašević, Griff Richards

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

89 Citations (Scopus)


The paper describes an ontology-based framework for bridging learning design and learning object content. In present solutions, researchers have proposed conceptual models and developed tools for both of those subjects, but without detailed discussions of how they can be used together. In this paper we advocate the use of ontologies to explicitly specify all learning designs, learning objects, and the relations between them, and show how this use of ontologies can result in more effective (semi-)automatic tools and services that increase the level of reusability. We first define a three-part conceptual model that introduces an intermediate level between learning design and learning objects called the learning object context. We then use ontologies to facilitate the representation of these concepts: LOCO is a new ontology based on IMS-LD, ALOCoM is an existing ontology for learning objects, and LOCO-Cite is a new ontology for the learning object contextual model. We conclude by showing the applicability of the proposed framework in a use case study.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)23-37
Number of pages15
JournalEducational Technology and Society
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Learning content
  • Learning design
  • Learning objects
  • Ontologies
  • Reusability

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