An inverse latitudinal gradient in speciation rate for marine fishes

Daniel L. Rabosky, Jonathan Chang, Pascal O. Title, Peter F. Cowman, Lauren Sallan, Matt Friedman, Kristin Kaschner, Cristina Garilao, Thomas J. Near, Marta Coll, Michael E. Alfaro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

65 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Far more species of organisms are found in the tropics than in temperate and polar regions, but the evolutionary and ecological causes of this pattern remain controversial. Tropical marine fish communities are much more diverse than cold-water fish communities found at higher latitudes, and several explanations for this latitudinal diversity gradient propose that warm reef environments serve as evolutionary 'hotspots' for species formation. Here we test the relationship between latitude, species richness and speciation rate across marine fishes. We assembled a time-calibrated phylogeny of all ray-finned fishes (31,526 tips, of which 11,638 had genetic data) and used this framework to describe the spatial dynamics of speciation in the marine realm. We show that the fastest rates of speciation occur in species-poor regions outside the tropics, and that high-latitude fish lineages form new species at much faster rates than their tropical counterparts. High rates of speciation occur in geographical regions that are characterized by low surface temperatures and high endemism. Our results reject a broad class of mechanisms under which the tropics serve as an evolutionary cradle for marine fish diversity and raise new questions about why the coldest oceans on Earth are present-day hotspots of species formation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)392-395
Number of pages4
JournalNature
Volume559
Issue number7714
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 19 Jul 2018
Externally publishedYes

Cite this

Rabosky, D. L., Chang, J., Title, P. O., Cowman, P. F., Sallan, L., Friedman, M., ... Alfaro, M. E. (2018). An inverse latitudinal gradient in speciation rate for marine fishes. Nature, 559(7714), 392-395. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0273-1
Rabosky, Daniel L. ; Chang, Jonathan ; Title, Pascal O. ; Cowman, Peter F. ; Sallan, Lauren ; Friedman, Matt ; Kaschner, Kristin ; Garilao, Cristina ; Near, Thomas J. ; Coll, Marta ; Alfaro, Michael E. / An inverse latitudinal gradient in speciation rate for marine fishes. In: Nature. 2018 ; Vol. 559, No. 7714. pp. 392-395.
@article{c38e0ba1cac846a397dcfd814c79920b,
title = "An inverse latitudinal gradient in speciation rate for marine fishes",
abstract = "Far more species of organisms are found in the tropics than in temperate and polar regions, but the evolutionary and ecological causes of this pattern remain controversial. Tropical marine fish communities are much more diverse than cold-water fish communities found at higher latitudes, and several explanations for this latitudinal diversity gradient propose that warm reef environments serve as evolutionary 'hotspots' for species formation. Here we test the relationship between latitude, species richness and speciation rate across marine fishes. We assembled a time-calibrated phylogeny of all ray-finned fishes (31,526 tips, of which 11,638 had genetic data) and used this framework to describe the spatial dynamics of speciation in the marine realm. We show that the fastest rates of speciation occur in species-poor regions outside the tropics, and that high-latitude fish lineages form new species at much faster rates than their tropical counterparts. High rates of speciation occur in geographical regions that are characterized by low surface temperatures and high endemism. Our results reject a broad class of mechanisms under which the tropics serve as an evolutionary cradle for marine fish diversity and raise new questions about why the coldest oceans on Earth are present-day hotspots of species formation.",
author = "Rabosky, {Daniel L.} and Jonathan Chang and Title, {Pascal O.} and Cowman, {Peter F.} and Lauren Sallan and Matt Friedman and Kristin Kaschner and Cristina Garilao and Near, {Thomas J.} and Marta Coll and Alfaro, {Michael E.}",
year = "2018",
month = "7",
day = "19",
doi = "10.1038/s41586-018-0273-1",
language = "English",
volume = "559",
pages = "392--395",
journal = "Nature",
issn = "0028-0836",
publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
number = "7714",

}

Rabosky, DL, Chang, J, Title, PO, Cowman, PF, Sallan, L, Friedman, M, Kaschner, K, Garilao, C, Near, TJ, Coll, M & Alfaro, ME 2018, 'An inverse latitudinal gradient in speciation rate for marine fishes', Nature, vol. 559, no. 7714, pp. 392-395. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0273-1

An inverse latitudinal gradient in speciation rate for marine fishes. / Rabosky, Daniel L.; Chang, Jonathan; Title, Pascal O.; Cowman, Peter F.; Sallan, Lauren; Friedman, Matt; Kaschner, Kristin; Garilao, Cristina; Near, Thomas J.; Coll, Marta; Alfaro, Michael E.

In: Nature, Vol. 559, No. 7714, 19.07.2018, p. 392-395.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - An inverse latitudinal gradient in speciation rate for marine fishes

AU - Rabosky, Daniel L.

AU - Chang, Jonathan

AU - Title, Pascal O.

AU - Cowman, Peter F.

AU - Sallan, Lauren

AU - Friedman, Matt

AU - Kaschner, Kristin

AU - Garilao, Cristina

AU - Near, Thomas J.

AU - Coll, Marta

AU - Alfaro, Michael E.

PY - 2018/7/19

Y1 - 2018/7/19

N2 - Far more species of organisms are found in the tropics than in temperate and polar regions, but the evolutionary and ecological causes of this pattern remain controversial. Tropical marine fish communities are much more diverse than cold-water fish communities found at higher latitudes, and several explanations for this latitudinal diversity gradient propose that warm reef environments serve as evolutionary 'hotspots' for species formation. Here we test the relationship between latitude, species richness and speciation rate across marine fishes. We assembled a time-calibrated phylogeny of all ray-finned fishes (31,526 tips, of which 11,638 had genetic data) and used this framework to describe the spatial dynamics of speciation in the marine realm. We show that the fastest rates of speciation occur in species-poor regions outside the tropics, and that high-latitude fish lineages form new species at much faster rates than their tropical counterparts. High rates of speciation occur in geographical regions that are characterized by low surface temperatures and high endemism. Our results reject a broad class of mechanisms under which the tropics serve as an evolutionary cradle for marine fish diversity and raise new questions about why the coldest oceans on Earth are present-day hotspots of species formation.

AB - Far more species of organisms are found in the tropics than in temperate and polar regions, but the evolutionary and ecological causes of this pattern remain controversial. Tropical marine fish communities are much more diverse than cold-water fish communities found at higher latitudes, and several explanations for this latitudinal diversity gradient propose that warm reef environments serve as evolutionary 'hotspots' for species formation. Here we test the relationship between latitude, species richness and speciation rate across marine fishes. We assembled a time-calibrated phylogeny of all ray-finned fishes (31,526 tips, of which 11,638 had genetic data) and used this framework to describe the spatial dynamics of speciation in the marine realm. We show that the fastest rates of speciation occur in species-poor regions outside the tropics, and that high-latitude fish lineages form new species at much faster rates than their tropical counterparts. High rates of speciation occur in geographical regions that are characterized by low surface temperatures and high endemism. Our results reject a broad class of mechanisms under which the tropics serve as an evolutionary cradle for marine fish diversity and raise new questions about why the coldest oceans on Earth are present-day hotspots of species formation.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85050195684&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1038/s41586-018-0273-1

DO - 10.1038/s41586-018-0273-1

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85050195684

VL - 559

SP - 392

EP - 395

JO - Nature

JF - Nature

SN - 0028-0836

IS - 7714

ER -

Rabosky DL, Chang J, Title PO, Cowman PF, Sallan L, Friedman M et al. An inverse latitudinal gradient in speciation rate for marine fishes. Nature. 2018 Jul 19;559(7714):392-395. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0273-1