An introduction to connectivity concept and an example of physical connectivity evaluation for underground space

Jian Zhao, Olivia Künzli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

43 Citations (Scopus)


Underground spaces will be the future frontier for urbanization due to surface land scarcity and environmental considerations. To improve the image and usage of underground space from the current planning, space connections, within underground and with above ground, must be improved to encourage the use of underground space. Connectivity of various parts within a large underground space complex has not been extensively studied. This paper introduces the concepts of connectivity in terms of physical, visual and implicit, and suggests that the physical connectivity can be measured and quantified. In the appendix, an example of developing physical connectivity evaluation methodology for underground spaces is illustrated, to show the possibility of calculating the physical connectivity that may provide input for underground space layout design and optimisation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)205-213
Number of pages9
JournalTunnelling and Underground Space Technology
Publication statusPublished - May 2016


  • Design optimisation
  • Physical connectivity
  • Underground space

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