An interlaboratory comparison of nanosilver characterisation and hazard identification: harmonising techniques for high quality data

Anita Jemec, Anne Kahru, Annegret Potthoff, Damjana Drobne, Margit Heinlaan, Steffi Bohme, Mark Geppert, Sara Novak, Kristin Schirmer, Rohit Rekulapally, Shashi Singh, Villem Aruoja, Mariliis Sihtmae, Katre Juganson, Aleksandr Kakinen, Dana Kuhnel

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Abstract

Within the FP7 EU project NanoValid a consortium of six partners jointly investigated the hazard of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) paying special attention to methodical aspects that are important for providing high-quality ecotoxicity data. Laboratories were supplied with the same original stock dispersion of AgNPs. All partners applied a harmonised procedure for storage and preparation of toxicity test suspensions. Altogether ten different toxicity assays with a range of environmentally relevant test species from different trophic levels were conducted in parallel to AgNP characterisation in the respective test media. The paper presents a comprehensive dataset of toxicity values and AgNP characteristics like hydrodynamic sizes of AgNP agglomerates and the share (%) of Ag+- species (the concentration of Ag+-species in relation to the total measured concentration of Ag). The studied AgNP preparation (20.4 ± 6.8 nm primary size, mean total Ag concentration 41.14 mg/L, 46–68% of soluble Ag+-species in stock, 123.8 ± 12.2 nm mean z-average value in dH2O) showed extreme toxicity to crustaceans Daphnia magna, algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and zebrafish Danio rerio embryos (EC50 b 0.01 mg total Ag/L), was very toxic in the in vitro assay with rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss gut cells (EC50: 0.01–1 mg total Ag/L); toxic to bacteria Vibrio fischeri, protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila (EC50: 1–10 mg total Ag/L) and harmful to marine crustaceans Artemia franciscana (EC50: 10–100 mg total Ag/L). Along with AgNPs, also the toxicity of AgNO3 was analyzed. The toxicity data revealed the same hazard ranking for AgNPs and AgNO3 (i.e. the EC50 values were in the same order of magnitude) proving the importance of soluble Ag+-species analysis for predicting the hazard of AgNPs. The study clearly points to the need for harmonised procedures for the characterisation of NMs. Harmonised procedures should consider: (i) measuring the AgNP properties like hydrodynamic size and metal ions species in each toxicity test medium at a range of concentrations, and (ii) including soluble metal salt control both in toxicity testing as well as in Ag+-species measurements. The present study is among the first nanomaterial interlaboratory comparison studies with the aim to improve the hazard identification testing protocols.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)20-32
Number of pages13
JournalEnvironment International
Volume87
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • FP7 EU project NanoValid
  • Nanomaterials' aging
  • Dissolution
  • Hydrodynamic diameter
  • Toxicity
  • Ag salt

Cite this

Jemec, Anita ; Kahru, Anne ; Potthoff, Annegret ; Drobne, Damjana ; Heinlaan, Margit ; Bohme, Steffi ; Geppert, Mark ; Novak, Sara ; Schirmer, Kristin ; Rekulapally, Rohit ; Singh, Shashi ; Aruoja, Villem ; Sihtmae, Mariliis ; Juganson, Katre ; Kakinen, Aleksandr ; Kuhnel, Dana. / An interlaboratory comparison of nanosilver characterisation and hazard identification: harmonising techniques for high quality data. In: Environment International. 2016 ; Vol. 87. pp. 20-32.
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abstract = "Within the FP7 EU project NanoValid a consortium of six partners jointly investigated the hazard of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) paying special attention to methodical aspects that are important for providing high-quality ecotoxicity data. Laboratories were supplied with the same original stock dispersion of AgNPs. All partners applied a harmonised procedure for storage and preparation of toxicity test suspensions. Altogether ten different toxicity assays with a range of environmentally relevant test species from different trophic levels were conducted in parallel to AgNP characterisation in the respective test media. The paper presents a comprehensive dataset of toxicity values and AgNP characteristics like hydrodynamic sizes of AgNP agglomerates and the share ({\%}) of Ag+- species (the concentration of Ag+-species in relation to the total measured concentration of Ag). The studied AgNP preparation (20.4 ± 6.8 nm primary size, mean total Ag concentration 41.14 mg/L, 46–68{\%} of soluble Ag+-species in stock, 123.8 ± 12.2 nm mean z-average value in dH2O) showed extreme toxicity to crustaceans Daphnia magna, algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and zebrafish Danio rerio embryos (EC50 b 0.01 mg total Ag/L), was very toxic in the in vitro assay with rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss gut cells (EC50: 0.01–1 mg total Ag/L); toxic to bacteria Vibrio fischeri, protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila (EC50: 1–10 mg total Ag/L) and harmful to marine crustaceans Artemia franciscana (EC50: 10–100 mg total Ag/L). Along with AgNPs, also the toxicity of AgNO3 was analyzed. The toxicity data revealed the same hazard ranking for AgNPs and AgNO3 (i.e. the EC50 values were in the same order of magnitude) proving the importance of soluble Ag+-species analysis for predicting the hazard of AgNPs. The study clearly points to the need for harmonised procedures for the characterisation of NMs. Harmonised procedures should consider: (i) measuring the AgNP properties like hydrodynamic size and metal ions species in each toxicity test medium at a range of concentrations, and (ii) including soluble metal salt control both in toxicity testing as well as in Ag+-species measurements. The present study is among the first nanomaterial interlaboratory comparison studies with the aim to improve the hazard identification testing protocols.",
keywords = "FP7 EU project NanoValid, Nanomaterials' aging, Dissolution, Hydrodynamic diameter, Toxicity, Ag salt",
author = "Anita Jemec and Anne Kahru and Annegret Potthoff and Damjana Drobne and Margit Heinlaan and Steffi Bohme and Mark Geppert and Sara Novak and Kristin Schirmer and Rohit Rekulapally and Shashi Singh and Villem Aruoja and Mariliis Sihtmae and Katre Juganson and Aleksandr Kakinen and Dana Kuhnel",
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volume = "87",
pages = "20--32",
journal = "Environment International",
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Jemec, A, Kahru, A, Potthoff, A, Drobne, D, Heinlaan, M, Bohme, S, Geppert, M, Novak, S, Schirmer, K, Rekulapally, R, Singh, S, Aruoja, V, Sihtmae, M, Juganson, K, Kakinen, A & Kuhnel, D 2016, 'An interlaboratory comparison of nanosilver characterisation and hazard identification: harmonising techniques for high quality data', Environment International, vol. 87, pp. 20-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2015.10.014

An interlaboratory comparison of nanosilver characterisation and hazard identification: harmonising techniques for high quality data. / Jemec, Anita; Kahru, Anne; Potthoff, Annegret; Drobne, Damjana; Heinlaan, Margit; Bohme, Steffi; Geppert, Mark; Novak, Sara; Schirmer, Kristin; Rekulapally, Rohit; Singh, Shashi; Aruoja, Villem; Sihtmae, Mariliis; Juganson, Katre; Kakinen, Aleksandr; Kuhnel, Dana.

In: Environment International, Vol. 87, 2016, p. 20-32.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - An interlaboratory comparison of nanosilver characterisation and hazard identification: harmonising techniques for high quality data

AU - Jemec, Anita

AU - Kahru, Anne

AU - Potthoff, Annegret

AU - Drobne, Damjana

AU - Heinlaan, Margit

AU - Bohme, Steffi

AU - Geppert, Mark

AU - Novak, Sara

AU - Schirmer, Kristin

AU - Rekulapally, Rohit

AU - Singh, Shashi

AU - Aruoja, Villem

AU - Sihtmae, Mariliis

AU - Juganson, Katre

AU - Kakinen, Aleksandr

AU - Kuhnel, Dana

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - Within the FP7 EU project NanoValid a consortium of six partners jointly investigated the hazard of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) paying special attention to methodical aspects that are important for providing high-quality ecotoxicity data. Laboratories were supplied with the same original stock dispersion of AgNPs. All partners applied a harmonised procedure for storage and preparation of toxicity test suspensions. Altogether ten different toxicity assays with a range of environmentally relevant test species from different trophic levels were conducted in parallel to AgNP characterisation in the respective test media. The paper presents a comprehensive dataset of toxicity values and AgNP characteristics like hydrodynamic sizes of AgNP agglomerates and the share (%) of Ag+- species (the concentration of Ag+-species in relation to the total measured concentration of Ag). The studied AgNP preparation (20.4 ± 6.8 nm primary size, mean total Ag concentration 41.14 mg/L, 46–68% of soluble Ag+-species in stock, 123.8 ± 12.2 nm mean z-average value in dH2O) showed extreme toxicity to crustaceans Daphnia magna, algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and zebrafish Danio rerio embryos (EC50 b 0.01 mg total Ag/L), was very toxic in the in vitro assay with rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss gut cells (EC50: 0.01–1 mg total Ag/L); toxic to bacteria Vibrio fischeri, protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila (EC50: 1–10 mg total Ag/L) and harmful to marine crustaceans Artemia franciscana (EC50: 10–100 mg total Ag/L). Along with AgNPs, also the toxicity of AgNO3 was analyzed. The toxicity data revealed the same hazard ranking for AgNPs and AgNO3 (i.e. the EC50 values were in the same order of magnitude) proving the importance of soluble Ag+-species analysis for predicting the hazard of AgNPs. The study clearly points to the need for harmonised procedures for the characterisation of NMs. Harmonised procedures should consider: (i) measuring the AgNP properties like hydrodynamic size and metal ions species in each toxicity test medium at a range of concentrations, and (ii) including soluble metal salt control both in toxicity testing as well as in Ag+-species measurements. The present study is among the first nanomaterial interlaboratory comparison studies with the aim to improve the hazard identification testing protocols.

AB - Within the FP7 EU project NanoValid a consortium of six partners jointly investigated the hazard of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) paying special attention to methodical aspects that are important for providing high-quality ecotoxicity data. Laboratories were supplied with the same original stock dispersion of AgNPs. All partners applied a harmonised procedure for storage and preparation of toxicity test suspensions. Altogether ten different toxicity assays with a range of environmentally relevant test species from different trophic levels were conducted in parallel to AgNP characterisation in the respective test media. The paper presents a comprehensive dataset of toxicity values and AgNP characteristics like hydrodynamic sizes of AgNP agglomerates and the share (%) of Ag+- species (the concentration of Ag+-species in relation to the total measured concentration of Ag). The studied AgNP preparation (20.4 ± 6.8 nm primary size, mean total Ag concentration 41.14 mg/L, 46–68% of soluble Ag+-species in stock, 123.8 ± 12.2 nm mean z-average value in dH2O) showed extreme toxicity to crustaceans Daphnia magna, algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and zebrafish Danio rerio embryos (EC50 b 0.01 mg total Ag/L), was very toxic in the in vitro assay with rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss gut cells (EC50: 0.01–1 mg total Ag/L); toxic to bacteria Vibrio fischeri, protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila (EC50: 1–10 mg total Ag/L) and harmful to marine crustaceans Artemia franciscana (EC50: 10–100 mg total Ag/L). Along with AgNPs, also the toxicity of AgNO3 was analyzed. The toxicity data revealed the same hazard ranking for AgNPs and AgNO3 (i.e. the EC50 values were in the same order of magnitude) proving the importance of soluble Ag+-species analysis for predicting the hazard of AgNPs. The study clearly points to the need for harmonised procedures for the characterisation of NMs. Harmonised procedures should consider: (i) measuring the AgNP properties like hydrodynamic size and metal ions species in each toxicity test medium at a range of concentrations, and (ii) including soluble metal salt control both in toxicity testing as well as in Ag+-species measurements. The present study is among the first nanomaterial interlaboratory comparison studies with the aim to improve the hazard identification testing protocols.

KW - FP7 EU project NanoValid

KW - Nanomaterials' aging

KW - Dissolution

KW - Hydrodynamic diameter

KW - Toxicity

KW - Ag salt

U2 - 10.1016/j.envint.2015.10.014

DO - 10.1016/j.envint.2015.10.014

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SP - 20

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JO - Environment International

JF - Environment International

SN - 0160-4120

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