Anesthesia is a routine component of cancer care that is used for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The anesthetic technique has recently been implicated in impacting long-term cancer outcomes, possibly through modulation of adrenergic-inflammatory responses that impact cancer cell behavior and immune cell function. Emerging evidence suggests that propofol-based total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) may be beneficial for long-term cancer outcomes when compared to inhaled volatile anesthesia. However, the available clinical findings are inconsistent. Preclinical studies that identify the underlying mechanisms involved are critically needed to guide the design of clinical studies that will expedite insight. Most preclinical models of anesthesia have been extrapolated from the use of anesthesia in in vivo research and are not optimally designed to study the impact of anesthesia itself as the primary endpoint. This paper describes a method for delivering propofol-TIVA anesthesia in a mouse model of breast cancer resection that replicates key aspects of clinical delivery in cancer patients. The model can be used to study mechanisms of action of anesthesia on cancer outcomes in diverse cancer types and can be extrapolated to other non-cancer areas of preclinical anesthesia research.