An in vitro digestion test that reflects rat intestinal conditions to probe the importance of formulation digestion vs first pass metabolism in danazol bioavailability from lipid based formulations

Mette Uhre Anby, Tri-Hung Nguyen, Yan Yan Yeap, Orlagh Feeney, Hywel David Williams, Hassan Benameur, Colin William Pouton, Christopher John Porter

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28 Citations (Scopus)


The impact of gastrointestinal (GI) processing and first pass metabolism on danazol oral bioavailability (BA) was evaluated after administration of self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) in the rat. Danazol absolute BA was determined following oral and intraduodenal (ID) administration of LFCS class IIIA medium chain (MC) formulations at high (SEDDSH-III) and low (SEDDSL-III) drug loading and a lipid free LFCS class IV formulation (SEDDS-IV). Experiments were conducted in the presence and absence of ABT (1-aminobenzotriazole) to evaluate the effect of first pass metabolism. A series of modified in vitro lipolysis tests were developed to better understand the in vivo processing of SEDDS in the rat. Danazol BA was low (45 after oral administration of SEDDS-III or SEDDS-IV. In contrast, previous studies in dogs suggest that danazol BA is less dependent on first pass metabolism and more sensitive to changes in formulation processing. In vitro digestion models based on likely rat GI conditions suggest less drug precipitation on formulation digestion when compared to equivalent dog models, consistent with the increases in in vivo exposure (fraction absorbed) seen here in ABT-pretreated rats.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4069 - 4083
Number of pages15
JournalMolecular Pharmaceutics
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2014

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