An experimental investigation of gas fuel injection with X-ray radiography

Andrew B. Swantek, D. J. Duke, A. L. Kastengren, N. Sovis, C. F. Powell, L. Bartolucci, R. Scarcelli, T. Waller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


In this work, an outward-opening compressed natural gas, direct injection fuel injector has been studied with single-shot X-ray radiography. Three dimensional simulations have also been performed to compliment the X-ray data. Argon was used as a surrogate gas for experimental and safety reasons. This technique allows the acquisition of a quantitative mapping of the ensemble-average and standard deviation of the projected density throughout the injection event. Two dimensional, ensemble average and standard deviation data are presented to investigate the quasi-steady-state behavior of the jet. Upstream of the stagnation zone, minimal shot-to-shot variation is observed. Downstream of the stagnation zone, bulk mixing is observed as the jet transitions to a subsonic turbulent jet. From the time averaged data, individual slices at all downstream locations are extracted and an Abel inversion was performed to compute the radial density distribution, which was interpolated to create three dimensional visualizations. The Abel reconstructions reveal that upstream of the stagnation zone, the gas forms an annulus with high argon density and large density gradients. Inside this annulus, a recirculation region with low argon density exists. Downstream, the jet transitions to a fully turbulent jet with Gaussian argon density distributions. This experimental data is intended to serve as a quantitative benchmark for simulations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)15-29
Number of pages15
JournalExperimental Thermal and Fluid Science
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Abel inversion
  • Fuel injection
  • Gas jet
  • Simulations
  • Underexpanded jet
  • X-ray radiography

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