An excitatory basis for divisive normalization in visual cortex

Tatsuo K. Sato, Bilal Haider, Michael Häusser, Matteo Carandini

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29 Citations (Scopus)


Neurons in visual cortex are connected not only locally, but also through networks of distal connectivity. These distal networks recruit both excitatory and inhibitory synapses and result in divisive normalization. Normalization is traditionally thought to result from increases in synaptic inhibition. By combining optogenetic stimulation and intracellular recordings in mouse visual cortex, we found that, on the contrary, normalization is a result of a decrease in synaptic excitation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)568-570
Number of pages3
JournalNature Neuroscience
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 29 Mar 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • neural circuits
  • striate cortex

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