An examination of a proposed DSM-IV pathological gambling hierarchy in a treatment seeking population: similarities with substance dependence and evidence for three classification systems

Darren R Christensen, Alun C Jackson, Nicki Andrea Dowling, Rachel A Volberg, Shane Thomas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Toce-Gerstein et al. (Addiction 98:1661-1672, 2003) investigated the distribution of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) pathological gambling criteria endorsement in a U.S. community sample for those people endorsing a least one of the DSM-IV criteria (n = 399). They proposed a hierarchy of gambling disorders where endorsement of 1-2 criteria were deemed At-Risk , 3-4 Problem gamblers , 5-7 Low Pathological , and 8-10 High Pathological gamblers. This article examines these claims in a larger Australian treatment seeking population. Data from 4,349 clients attending specialist problem gambling services were assessed for meeting the ten DSM-IV pathological gambling criteria. Results found higher overall criteria endorsement frequencies, three components, a direct relationship between criteria endorsement and gambling severity, clustering of criteria similar to the Toce-Gerstein et al.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)787 - 806
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Gambling Studies
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Cite this