An evaluation of the mid-ventilation method for the planning of stereotactic lung plans

Simon J. Thomas, Barry J. Evans, Lakshmi Harihar, Hannah J. Chantler, Alexander G.R. Martin, Susan V. Harden

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5 Citations (Scopus)


Background and purpose: Stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy for lung plans requires 4DCT. Most radiotherapy centres use this to determine an internal target volume (ITV), despite studies suggesting that planning on a mid-ventilation (Mid-V) phase can reduce target volumes. The purpose of this study is two-fold: to determine whether the Mid-V approach provides adequate coverage and to discuss methods to enable the Mid-V approach to be applied more widely. Method: 4D scans of 79 patients were outlined on every phase. The mid-V phase was identified. Margins were determined from the range of motion, and plans generated with a 55 Gy prescription. A grid-based method was used to get the probability of tumour coverage in the presence of systematic and random uncertainties, with and without blurring for breathing motion. Results: For the Mid-V plans with the margins calculated from the van-Herk formula, after blurring doses for breathing, the coverage (dose covering 95% of the CTV 95% of the time) was greater than for plans with isotropic 5 mm margins uncorrected for breathing (58.2 Gy v 57.3 Gy). Similar results were obtained for a linear margin chosen as 0.15 of the breathing range. Deformable contour propagation in a commercial outlining system (ProSoma) identified the same mid-V phase in the majority of cases. Conclusion: Our results confirm that a mid-V approach can be used to reduce the PTV size, with no loss of tumour coverage. We propose the use of a simplified margin formula equal to the margin ignoring breathing plus 0.15 of the range of motion.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)110-116
Number of pages7
JournalRadiotherapy and Oncology
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • 4DCT
  • Lung
  • mid-V

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