An empirical analysis of the pricing of bank issued options versus options exchange options

Jenke ter Horst, Christianus Henricus Veld

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18 Citations (Scopus)


Since 1998, large investment banks have become active as issuers of options, generally referred to as call warrants or bank-issued options. This has led to an interesting situation in the Netherlands, where simultaneously call warrants are traded on the stock exchange, and long-term call options are traded on the options exchange. Both entitle their holders to buy shares of common stock. We start with a direct comparison between call warrants and call options, written on the same stock and with the same exercise price, but where the call option has a longer time to maturity. In 13 out of 16 cases we find that the call warrants are priced higher, which is a clear violation of basic option pricing rules. In the second part of the analysis we use option pricing models to compare the pricing of call warrants and call options. If implied standard deviations from options are used to price the call warrants, we find that the call warrants are strongly overpriced during the first five trading days. The average overpricing is between 25 and 30 . Only a small part of the overpricing can be explained by rational arguments such as transaction costs. We suggest that the overvaluation can be explained by a combination of an active financial marketing by the banks and the framing effect.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)288 - 314
Number of pages27
JournalEuropean Financial Management
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2008
Externally publishedYes

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