An efficient sign prediction method for DCT coefficients and its application to reversible data embedding in scrambled JPEG image

Reza Moradi Rad, Koksheik Wong

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference PaperResearchpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


In this paper, an efficient DCT sign prediction method is proposed. Unlike the conventional methods that depend on information from both spatial and frequency domains, the proposed method operates solely in the frequency domain by exploiting the pixel value patterns represented by the corresponding DCT basis vectors. In particular, each block is classified into five categories, namely, complex-pattern, complex-nonpattern, simple-smooth, simple-pattern and simple-texture, and each is treated differently using the proposed predictor. The proposed sign prediction method is then applied to realize reversible data embedding using sign information in a scrambled JPEG compressed image. This work is the first of its kind in using sign information for data embedding purposes. Basic performance of the proposed sign prediction and the proposed reversible data embedding method in scrambled JPEG image are verified using standard test images.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2013 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, ICIP 2013 - Proceedings
Number of pages5
Publication statusPublished - 2013
Externally publishedYes
EventIEEE International Conference on Image Processing 2013 - Melbourne Convention and Exhibition Centre (MCEC), Melbourne, Australia
Duration: 15 Sep 201318 Sep 2013
Conference number: 20th (IEEE Conference Proceedings)


ConferenceIEEE International Conference on Image Processing 2013
Abbreviated titleICIP 2013
Internet address


  • data embedding
  • DCT basis vector
  • reversible
  • scrambling
  • Sign prediction

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