This paper presents a new method based on the electromagnetic time-reversal (EMTR) theory for locating faults in power networks. The applicability of the EMTR technique to locate faults is first discussed. Using the classical transmission-line equations in the frequency domain, analytical expressions are derived to infer the location of the fault. The accuracy of the proposed method is then discussed in relation to the number of observation points adopted to record the fault-originated electromagnetic transients. Then, this paper illustrates the extension of the proposed method to the time domain. The experimental validation of the proposed method is presented by making reference to a reduced-scale coaxial cable system where real faults are hardware-emulated. Finally, the application of the proposed EMTR-based fault-location method to Electromagnetic Transients Program-simulated cases is presented. The simulated test cases are: a mixed overhead/coaxial cable transmission system and the IEEE 34-bus distribution test feeder. Compared to other transient-based fault-location techniques, the proposed method presents a number of advantages, namely, its straightforward applicability to inhomogeneous media (mixed overhead and coaxial power cable lines), the use of a single observation (measurement) point, and robustness against fault type and fault impedance.
- Electromagnetic time reversal
- fault location
- fault transients
- power systems protection