An association between a dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3) haplotype and ADHD symptom measures in nonclinical adults

Janette Ho Shuen Tong, Tarrant Cummins, Beth Patricia Johnson, Leigh-Anne McKinley, Hayley Pickering, Peter Fanning, Nicole Stefanac, Daniel Patrick Newman, Ziarih Hawi, Mark Andrew Bellgrove

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Abstract

Previous genetic studies have postulated that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) should be regarded as the extreme end of a set of behavioural traits that can be continuously measured in the general population. The current study adopted a quantitative trait approach to examine the relationship between dopamine gene variants and self-reported ADHD symptoms in 517 nonclinical adults. Although genetic associations with variants of both the dopamine transporter (DAT1; SLC6A3) and D4 receptor (DRD4) genes have been reliably reported in children, results in adults are less consistent. We probed two potentially functional variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphisms in the 3 UTR and intron 8 of DAT1, the 10-repeat and 6-repeat alleles of which respectively form a haplotype (10/6 DAT1 haplotype) that is associated with childhood ADHD. We also genotyped the exon 3 VNTR of DRD4, the 7-repeat allele of which is also an established risk factor for childhood ADHD. Permutation analysis showed an influence of the 10/6 DAT1 haplotype on both CAARS-G and CAARS-H (DSM-IV ADHD Symptoms Total and ADHD Index respectively), such that ADHD symptom scores increased with each additional copy of the 10/6 DAT1 haplotype. This result survived corrections for multiple comparisons both at the level of genotype and phenotype. A nominal association with CAARS-G was also found for the 7-repeat allele of the DRD4 VNTR however this did not survive multiple comparison correction. Our results provide further support for the influence of variation in the 10/6 DAT1 haplotype and individual differences in ADHD symptoms in adults
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)89 - 96
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Volume168
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Cite this

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title = "An association between a dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3) haplotype and ADHD symptom measures in nonclinical adults",
abstract = "Previous genetic studies have postulated that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) should be regarded as the extreme end of a set of behavioural traits that can be continuously measured in the general population. The current study adopted a quantitative trait approach to examine the relationship between dopamine gene variants and self-reported ADHD symptoms in 517 nonclinical adults. Although genetic associations with variants of both the dopamine transporter (DAT1; SLC6A3) and D4 receptor (DRD4) genes have been reliably reported in children, results in adults are less consistent. We probed two potentially functional variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphisms in the 3 UTR and intron 8 of DAT1, the 10-repeat and 6-repeat alleles of which respectively form a haplotype (10/6 DAT1 haplotype) that is associated with childhood ADHD. We also genotyped the exon 3 VNTR of DRD4, the 7-repeat allele of which is also an established risk factor for childhood ADHD. Permutation analysis showed an influence of the 10/6 DAT1 haplotype on both CAARS-G and CAARS-H (DSM-IV ADHD Symptoms Total and ADHD Index respectively), such that ADHD symptom scores increased with each additional copy of the 10/6 DAT1 haplotype. This result survived corrections for multiple comparisons both at the level of genotype and phenotype. A nominal association with CAARS-G was also found for the 7-repeat allele of the DRD4 VNTR however this did not survive multiple comparison correction. Our results provide further support for the influence of variation in the 10/6 DAT1 haplotype and individual differences in ADHD symptoms in adults",
author = "Tong, {Janette Ho Shuen} and Tarrant Cummins and Johnson, {Beth Patricia} and Leigh-Anne McKinley and Hayley Pickering and Peter Fanning and Nicole Stefanac and Newman, {Daniel Patrick} and Ziarih Hawi and Bellgrove, {Mark Andrew}",
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language = "English",
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An association between a dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3) haplotype and ADHD symptom measures in nonclinical adults. / Tong, Janette Ho Shuen; Cummins, Tarrant; Johnson, Beth Patricia; McKinley, Leigh-Anne; Pickering, Hayley; Fanning, Peter; Stefanac, Nicole; Newman, Daniel Patrick; Hawi, Ziarih; Bellgrove, Mark Andrew.

In: American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, Vol. 168, No. 2, 2015, p. 89 - 96.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - An association between a dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3) haplotype and ADHD symptom measures in nonclinical adults

AU - Tong, Janette Ho Shuen

AU - Cummins, Tarrant

AU - Johnson, Beth Patricia

AU - McKinley, Leigh-Anne

AU - Pickering, Hayley

AU - Fanning, Peter

AU - Stefanac, Nicole

AU - Newman, Daniel Patrick

AU - Hawi, Ziarih

AU - Bellgrove, Mark Andrew

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - Previous genetic studies have postulated that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) should be regarded as the extreme end of a set of behavioural traits that can be continuously measured in the general population. The current study adopted a quantitative trait approach to examine the relationship between dopamine gene variants and self-reported ADHD symptoms in 517 nonclinical adults. Although genetic associations with variants of both the dopamine transporter (DAT1; SLC6A3) and D4 receptor (DRD4) genes have been reliably reported in children, results in adults are less consistent. We probed two potentially functional variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphisms in the 3 UTR and intron 8 of DAT1, the 10-repeat and 6-repeat alleles of which respectively form a haplotype (10/6 DAT1 haplotype) that is associated with childhood ADHD. We also genotyped the exon 3 VNTR of DRD4, the 7-repeat allele of which is also an established risk factor for childhood ADHD. Permutation analysis showed an influence of the 10/6 DAT1 haplotype on both CAARS-G and CAARS-H (DSM-IV ADHD Symptoms Total and ADHD Index respectively), such that ADHD symptom scores increased with each additional copy of the 10/6 DAT1 haplotype. This result survived corrections for multiple comparisons both at the level of genotype and phenotype. A nominal association with CAARS-G was also found for the 7-repeat allele of the DRD4 VNTR however this did not survive multiple comparison correction. Our results provide further support for the influence of variation in the 10/6 DAT1 haplotype and individual differences in ADHD symptoms in adults

AB - Previous genetic studies have postulated that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) should be regarded as the extreme end of a set of behavioural traits that can be continuously measured in the general population. The current study adopted a quantitative trait approach to examine the relationship between dopamine gene variants and self-reported ADHD symptoms in 517 nonclinical adults. Although genetic associations with variants of both the dopamine transporter (DAT1; SLC6A3) and D4 receptor (DRD4) genes have been reliably reported in children, results in adults are less consistent. We probed two potentially functional variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphisms in the 3 UTR and intron 8 of DAT1, the 10-repeat and 6-repeat alleles of which respectively form a haplotype (10/6 DAT1 haplotype) that is associated with childhood ADHD. We also genotyped the exon 3 VNTR of DRD4, the 7-repeat allele of which is also an established risk factor for childhood ADHD. Permutation analysis showed an influence of the 10/6 DAT1 haplotype on both CAARS-G and CAARS-H (DSM-IV ADHD Symptoms Total and ADHD Index respectively), such that ADHD symptom scores increased with each additional copy of the 10/6 DAT1 haplotype. This result survived corrections for multiple comparisons both at the level of genotype and phenotype. A nominal association with CAARS-G was also found for the 7-repeat allele of the DRD4 VNTR however this did not survive multiple comparison correction. Our results provide further support for the influence of variation in the 10/6 DAT1 haplotype and individual differences in ADHD symptoms in adults

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DO - 10.1002/ajmg.b.32283

M3 - Article

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EP - 96

JO - American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics

JF - American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics

SN - 1552-4841

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