An assessment of technological development and applications of decentralized water reuse: A critical review and conceptual framework

Geetha Maniam, Nur Ain Zakaria, Choe Peng Leo, Vasilena Vassilev, Karen Banahene Blay, Kourosh Behzadian, Phaik Eong Poh

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Rapid development, urbanization, and population growth have contributed to water stress in many parts of the world. As freshwater sources are finite, it is essential to source for alternatives to ensure water security. Reclamation of non-conventional water sources (i.e., rainwater and greywater) can be a viable alternative to alleviate water stress. In this work, various laboratory, pre-commercialization scale, and commercialized products for rainwater harvesting and greywater treatment and reuse were reviewed. As a result, a conceptual framework is proposed to provide an overview on the applicability of technologies under various settings, which were mapped against the intended use of treated water and the potential for water supply expansion. This conceptual framework could aid decision makers in deciding on a suitable decentralized solution for water reclamation depending on limiting criteria. Decentralized systems of rainwater harvesting and greywater treatment for reuse are going to be crucial in reducing the dependence on the centralized water supply. This article is categorized under: Engineering Water > Planning Water Water and Life > Conservation, Management, and Awareness Science of Water > Water Quality.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere1588
Number of pages31
JournalWIREs Water
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - May 2022


  • decentralized
  • greywater
  • rainwater
  • urban
  • water reuse

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