An aspergillus niger esterase (ferulic acid esterase III) and a recombinant Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. cellulosa Esterase (XylD) release a 5-5' ferulic dehydrodimer (diferulic acid) from barley and wheat cell walls

Begoňa Bartolomé, Craig B. Faulds, Paul A. Kroon, Keith Waldron, Harry J. Gilbert, Geoff Hazlewood, Gary Williamson

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Diferulate esters strengthen and cross-link primary, plant cell walls and help to defend the plant from invading microbes. Phenolics also limit the degradation of plant cell walls by saprophytic microbes and by anaerobic microorganisms in the rumen. We show that incubation of wheat and barley cell walls with ferulic acid esterase from Aspergillus niger (FAE-III) or Pseudomonas fluorescens (XylD), together with either xylanase I from Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma viride xylanase, or xylanase from Pseudomonas fluorescens (XylA), leads to release of the ferulate dimer 5-5'diFA [(E,E)- 4,4'-dihydroxy-5,5'-dimethoxy-3,3'-bicinnamic acid]. Direct saponification of the cell walls without enzyme treatment released the following five identifiable ferulate dimers (in order of abundance): (Z)-β-{4-[(E)-2- carboxyvinyl]-2-methoxyphenoxy}-4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid, trans-5- [(E)-2-carboxyvinyl]-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-7-methoxy-2,3- dihydrobenzofuran-3-carboxylic acid, 5-5'diFA, (E,E)-4,4'-dihydroxy-3,5'- dimethoxy-β,3'-bicinnamic acid, and trans-7-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3- methoxyphenyl)-6-methoxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid. Incubation of the wheat or barley cell walls with xylanase, followed by saponification of the solubilized fraction, yielded 5-5'diFA and, in some cases, certain of the above dimers, depending on the xylanase used. These experiments demonstrate that FAE-III and XYLD specifically release only esters of 5-5'diFA from either xylanase-treated or insoluble fractions of cell walls, even though other esterified dimers were solubilized by preincubation with xylanase. It is also concluded that the esterified dimer content of the xylanase-solubilized fraction depends on the source of the xylanase.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)208-212
Number of pages5
JournalApplied and Environmental Microbiology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 1997
Externally publishedYes

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