An adaptive DCT-based Mod-4 steganographic method

Xiaojun Qi, Koksheik Wong

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15 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents a novel Mod-4 steganographic method in discrete cosine transform (DCT) domain. A group of 2×2 quantized DCT coefficients (GQC) is selected as the valid embedding area if more than two DCT coefficients are outside the interval of [-1,1], The modulo 4 arithmetic operation is further applied to all the valid GQCs to embed a pair of binary bits using the shortest-route modification scheme. Each secret message is also encrypted to provide the system with more security. The proposed system has been extensively tested on a variety of images with different textures. Experimental results demonstrate that our system successfully preserves the quality of the images and stays undetected by the well-known steganalysis methods.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationIEEE International Conference on Image Processing 2005, ICIP 2005
Number of pages4
Publication statusPublished - 2005
Externally publishedYes
EventIEEE International Conference on Image Processing 2005 - Genova, Italy
Duration: 11 Sept 200514 Sept 2005
Conference number: 12th (Proceedings)

Publication series

NameProceedings - International Conference on Image Processing, ICIP
ISSN (Print)1522-4880


ConferenceIEEE International Conference on Image Processing 2005
Abbreviated titleICIP 2005
Internet address

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