Mucosal immunization regimes that employ the oral route of delivery are often compromised by antigen degradation in the stomach. Moreover, tolerance or immunological unresponsiveness to orally delivered vaccine antigens is also a major problem associated with this route of immunization. Immunization by alternative routes including intrarectal (i.r.) and intranasal (i.n.) is becoming increasingly recognized in large animals for generating protective antibody responses at mucosal surfaces. These approaches are particularly useful in ruminant species which have four stomachs that can potentially interfere with antigen presentation to mucosal inductive sites of the gut. Modifications to enhance existing mucosal immunization regimes have also been explored through the use of alternative antigen delivery systems and mucosal adjuvants. The combination of alternative immunization routes and the use of appropriate antigen delivery systems appear to be a rational approach for providing protective immunity at mucosal surfaces. There has been a considerable amount of research conducted on evaluating the efficacy of emerging antigen delivery systems and novel adjuvants for improved immunity to mucosal immunization but very little of this work has been specific to the mucosal compartment of large animals. The aim of this review is therefore to assess the feasibility and practicality of using large animals (particularly sheep, cattle and pigs) for inducing and detecting specific immune responses to alternative mucosal routes of immunization.
|Pages (from-to)||10 - 16|
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Immunology and Cell Biology|
|Publication status||Published - 2004|