Algae photosynthesis and respiration experimentation with physical and augmented reality modes

Ardan Wildan, Chin Doong Yau, Enoch Ming Wei Ng, Kevin Xiao, Oi Wah Liew, Tuck Wah Ng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review


The monitoring of pH changes due to dissolved carbon dioxide from algal balls offers a way for students to acquire good understanding of the processes of photosynthesis and respiration. Here, 54 high school participants were enlisted to conduct the experiment physically and with an Augmented Reality (AR) tool developed. A survey conducted after the exercise revealed the AR tool achieved overall higher scores in four out of six experiential factors compared with physical experimentation overall. Nevertheless, the participants supported using both modes to enhance their learning.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Biological Education
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 1 Jan 2020


  • Algae
  • augmented reality
  • experimentation
  • photosynthesis
  • respiration

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