Aldosterone-induced hypertension is sex-dependent, mediated by T cells and sensitive to GPER activation

Quynh Nhu Dinh, Antony Vinh, Hyun Ah Kim, Narbada Saini, Brad R.S. Broughton, Sophocles Chrissobolis, Henry Diep, Courtney P. Judkins, Grant R. Drummond, Christopher G. Sobey

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12 Citations (Scopus)


AIMS: The G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER) may modulate some effects of aldosterone. In addition, G-1 (a GPER agonist) can lower blood pressure (BP) and promote T cell-mediated anti-inflammatory responses. This study aimed to test the effects of G-1 and G-15 (a GPER antagonist) on aldosterone-induced hypertension in mice and to examine the cellular mechanisms involved. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57Bl/6 (wild-type, WT), RAG1-deficient and GPER-deficient mice were infused with vehicle, aldosterone (0.72 mg/kg/day S.C. plus 0.9% NaCl for drinking) ± G-1 (0.03 mg/kg/day S.C.) ± G-15 (0.3 mg/kg/day S.C.) for 14 days. G-1 attenuated aldosterone-induced hypertension in male WT but not male GPER-deficient mice. G-15 alone did not alter hypertension but it prevented the anti-hypertensive effect of G-1. In intact female WT mice, aldosterone-induced hypertension was markedly delayed and suppressed compared with responses in males, with BP remaining unchanged until after Day 7. In contrast, co-administration of aldosterone and G-15 fully increased BP within 7 days in WT females. Similarly, aldosterone robustly increased BP by Day 7 in ovariectomized WT females, and in both sexes of GPER-deficient mice. Whereas aldosterone had virtually no effect on BP in RAG1-deficient mice, adoptive transfer of T cells from male WT or male GPER-deficient mice into male RAG1-deficient mice restored the pressor response to aldosterone. This pressor effect could be attenuated by G-1 in RAG1-deficient mice that were reconstituted with either WT or GPER-deficient T cells, suggesting that G-1 does not act via T cells to lower BP. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that although aldosterone-induced hypertension is largely mediated by T cells, it can be attenuated by activation of GPER on non-T cells, which accounts for the sex difference in sensitivity to the pressor effect.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)960-970
Number of pages11
JournalCardiovascular Research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2021


  • Aldosterone
  • Estrogen
  • GPER
  • Hypertension
  • T cells

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