Affected others responsivity to gambling harm: An international taxonomy of consumer-derived behaviour change techniques

Natalia Booth, Nicki A. Dowling, Jason Landon, Dan I. Lubman, Stephanie S. Merkouris, Simone N. Rodda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Affected others impacted by someone else’s gambling utilise numerous behaviour change strategies to minimise gambling-related harm but knowledge on what these strategies are and how they are implemented is limited. This study aimed to develop a comprehensive data-driven taxonomy of the types of self-help strategies used by affected others, and to categorize these into high-level behaviour change techniques (BCTs). Two taxonomies were developed using an inductive and deductive approach which was applied to a dataset of online sources and organised into the Rubicon model of action phases. These taxonomies were family-focused (how to reduce the impact of gambling harm on families) and gambler-focused (how to support the gambler in behaviour change). In total, 329 online sources containing 3536 different strategies were identified. The family-focused classification contained 16 BCTs, and the most frequent were professional support, financial management and planned consequences. The gambler-focused classification contained 11 BCTs, and the most frequent were feedback on behaviours, professional support and financial management. The majority of family-and gambler-focused BCTs fell under the actional phase of the Rubicon model. Grounded in lived experience, the findings highlight the need for intervention and resource development that includes a wide range of specific techniques that affected others can utilise.

Original languageEnglish
Article number583
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2021


  • Behaviour change
  • Behaviour change techniques
  • Concerned significant others
  • Gambling harm
  • Self-help
  • Treatment

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