Invasive fungal infections (IFI) are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the immunocompromised. The traditional diagnostic methods of culture and histological examination lack sensitivity and often only make a diagnosis late when the fungal burden is high, reducing the chances of cure even with the availability of new more potent and less toxic antifungal agents. New non-culture-based serological and PCR assays have been developed. These appear more sensitive and are able to make an earlier diagnosis as compared with traditional diagnostic methods. Early diagnosis is central to reducing IFI-related morbidity and mortality. This review describes the diagnostic potential of the new serological and PCR assays and outlines how these assays have been incorporated into algorithms to improve the management of IFI. ? 2013 The Author(s).