Advances in G protein-coupled receptor allostery: From function to structure

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

It is now widely accepted that G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are highly dynamic proteins that adopt multiple active states linked to distinct functional outcomes. Furthermore, these states can be differentially stabilized not only by orthosteric ligands but also by allosteric ligands acting at spatially distinct binding sites. The key pharmacologic characteristics of GPCR allostery include improved selectivity due to either greater sequence divergence between receptor subtypes and/or subtype-selective cooperativity, a ceiling level to the effect, probe dependence (whereby the magnitude and direction of the allosteric effect change with the nature of the interacting ligands), and the potential for biased signaling. Recent chemical biology developments are beginning to demonstrate how the incorporation of analytical pharmacology and operational modeling into the experimental workflow can enrich structure-activity studies of allostery and bias, and have also led to the discovery of a new class of hybrid orthosteric/ allosteric (bitopic) molecules. The potential for endogenous allosteric modulators to play a role in physiology and disease remains to be fully appreciated but will likely represent an important area for future studies. Finally, breakthroughs in structural and computational biology are beginning to unravel the mechanistic basis of GPCR allosteric modulation at the molecular level.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)463 - 478
Number of pages16
JournalMolecular Pharmacology
Volume86
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Cite this

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title = "Advances in G protein-coupled receptor allostery: From function to structure",
abstract = "It is now widely accepted that G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are highly dynamic proteins that adopt multiple active states linked to distinct functional outcomes. Furthermore, these states can be differentially stabilized not only by orthosteric ligands but also by allosteric ligands acting at spatially distinct binding sites. The key pharmacologic characteristics of GPCR allostery include improved selectivity due to either greater sequence divergence between receptor subtypes and/or subtype-selective cooperativity, a ceiling level to the effect, probe dependence (whereby the magnitude and direction of the allosteric effect change with the nature of the interacting ligands), and the potential for biased signaling. Recent chemical biology developments are beginning to demonstrate how the incorporation of analytical pharmacology and operational modeling into the experimental workflow can enrich structure-activity studies of allostery and bias, and have also led to the discovery of a new class of hybrid orthosteric/ allosteric (bitopic) molecules. The potential for endogenous allosteric modulators to play a role in physiology and disease remains to be fully appreciated but will likely represent an important area for future studies. Finally, breakthroughs in structural and computational biology are beginning to unravel the mechanistic basis of GPCR allosteric modulation at the molecular level.",
author = "Arthur Christopoulos",
year = "2014",
doi = "10.1124/mol.114.094342",
language = "English",
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Advances in G protein-coupled receptor allostery: From function to structure. / Christopoulos, Arthur.

In: Molecular Pharmacology, Vol. 86, No. 5, 2014, p. 463 - 478.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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AB - It is now widely accepted that G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are highly dynamic proteins that adopt multiple active states linked to distinct functional outcomes. Furthermore, these states can be differentially stabilized not only by orthosteric ligands but also by allosteric ligands acting at spatially distinct binding sites. The key pharmacologic characteristics of GPCR allostery include improved selectivity due to either greater sequence divergence between receptor subtypes and/or subtype-selective cooperativity, a ceiling level to the effect, probe dependence (whereby the magnitude and direction of the allosteric effect change with the nature of the interacting ligands), and the potential for biased signaling. Recent chemical biology developments are beginning to demonstrate how the incorporation of analytical pharmacology and operational modeling into the experimental workflow can enrich structure-activity studies of allostery and bias, and have also led to the discovery of a new class of hybrid orthosteric/ allosteric (bitopic) molecules. The potential for endogenous allosteric modulators to play a role in physiology and disease remains to be fully appreciated but will likely represent an important area for future studies. Finally, breakthroughs in structural and computational biology are beginning to unravel the mechanistic basis of GPCR allosteric modulation at the molecular level.

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