Advanced machine learning model for better prediction accuracy of soil temperature at different depths

Meysam Alizamir, Ozgur Kisi, Ali Najah Ahmed, Cihan Mert, Chow Ming Fai, Sungwon Kim, Nam Won Kim, Ahmed El-Shafie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


Soil temperature has a vital importance in biological, physical and chemical processes of terrestrial ecosystem and its modeling at different depths is very important for land-atmosphere interactions. The study compares four machine learning techniques, extreme learning machine (ELM), artificial neural networks (ANN), classification and regression trees (CART) and group method of data handling (GMDH) in estimating monthly soil temperatures at four different depths. Various combinations of climatic variables are utilized as input to the developed models. The models' outcomes are also compared with multi-linear regression based on Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, root mean square error, and coefficient of determination statistics. ELM is found to be generally performs better than the other four alternatives in estimating soil temperatures. A decrease in performance of the models is observed by an increase in soil depth. It is found that soil temperatures at three depths (5, 10 and 50 cm) could be mapped utilizing only air temperature data as input while solar radiation and wind speed information are also required for estimating soil temperature at the depth of 100 cm.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0231055
Number of pages25
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 14 Apr 2020
Externally publishedYes

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