Adjunctive raloxifene for postmenopausal women with schizophrenia: A meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials

Xiao Min Zhu, Wei Zheng, Xiao Hong Li, Dong Bin Cai, Xin Hu Yang, Gabor S. Ungvari, Chee H. Ng, Xiao Ping Wang, Jayashri Kulkarni, Jasmin Grigg, Yu Ping Ning, Yu Tao Xiang

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12 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: Raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, has been used in treating postmenopausal women with schizophrenia with inconsistent results. This meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) examined its efficacy and safety for postmenopausal women with schizophrenia. Method: Standardized mean differences (SMDs) and risk ratio (RR) together with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the random effects model. Results: The meta-analysis included 5 RCTs (n = 240) comparing raloxifene (n = 125, 60 or 120 mg/day) with placebo (n = 115). Adjunctive raloxifene outperformed placebo with regard to the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total psychopathology [n = 240, SMD:-0.64 (95%CI:-0.90, −0.37), P < 0.00001; I2 = 0%], positive symptoms [n = 240, SMD:-0.49 (95%CI:-0.81, −0.16), P = 0.003; I2 = 29%], negative symptoms [n = 240, SMD:-0.43 (95%CI:-0.68, −0.17), P = 0.001; I2 = 0%], and general psychopathology scores [n = 240, SMD:-0.66 (95%CI:-0.92, −0.39), P < 0.00001; I2 = 0%]. Both groups had similar rates of adverse events and discontinuation (n = 159, RR: 1.32 (95%CI: 0.65, 2.70), P = 0.44, I2 = 0%). Conclusion: Adjunctive raloxifene appears to be effective and safe in improving psychotic symptoms for postmenopausal women with schizophrenia. Review registration: CRD 42017059946

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)288-293
Number of pages6
JournalSchizophrenia Research
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2018


  • Meta-analysis
  • Postmenopause
  • Raloxifene
  • Schizophrenia
  • Women

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