Adhesion molecules and chemoattractants in autoimmunity

Charles Reay Mackay, Ulrich H von Andrian

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (Book)Researchpeer-review

    Abstract

    Expressions of autoimmune diseases involve recruitment of pathogenic cell types into the affected tissue(s). This depends on molecules that facilitate cell migration: adhesion molecules and chemoattractants, and their receptors. The discovery of numerous adhesion molecules and chemokine receptors over the past 2-3 decades has afforded a more detailed understanding of how specialized leukocyte subsets get channeled to appropriate microenvironments during an immune response and how, under resting conditions, lymphocyte migration is highly specialized. Thus there exist lymphoid versus non-lymphoid tissue migration streams, and tissue-specific migration pathways and compartmentalization; particularly studied are those through the skin and gut. We describe the rationalization of the nomenclature of the molecules involved in these events. Different types of immune response evoke different subsets of leukocytes that use different adhesion molecules and chemoattractant receptors. Thus type 1 inflammatory responses which depend on type 1 helper T (Th1) cells and macrophages differ, in the types of chemokines and chemokine receptors used, from type 2 responses that depend on Th2 cells and eosinophils. Key examples would include the movement of effector Th17 cells that use distinct migration molecules such as CCR6, and similarly of T follicular helper cells (Tfh) and of regulatory T cells. Herein we describe the adhesion, chemoattraction, and migration of leukocytes, particularly T cells that are associated with autoimmune responses. Finally, since adhesion molecules and chemoattractant receptors have proven to be highly attractive targets for therapeutic intervention, we outline the utility of biological agents to these molecules for therapy of autoimmune diseases.

    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationThe Autoimmune Diseases
    EditorsNoel R Rose, Ian R Mackay
    Place of PublicationUSA
    PublisherElsevier
    Pages297-308
    Number of pages12
    Edition5th
    ISBN (Print)9780123849298
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2014

    Keywords

    • Adhesion molecules
    • Autoimmune diseases
    • Biological therapies
    • Cellular traffic
    • Chemoattractants
    • Chemokines
    • Lymphocyte homing

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