Adherence to Exercise Programs in Community-Dwelling Older Adults Postdischarge for Hip Fracture: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Lucinda Yau, Kate Soutter, Christina Ekegren, Keith D. Hill, Maureen Ashe, Sze Ee Soh

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: To determine whether older adults adhere to exercise programs after discharge for hip fracture and how adherence relates to exercise program characteristics and intervention efficacy. Data Sources: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health, Embase, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Ovid MEDLINE were searched from inception to August 2020. Study Selection: Randomized controlled trials of exercise interventions in adults older than 60 years with a surgically managed hip fracture that provided a measure of adherence were selected by 2 independent reviewers. Data Extraction: Data were extracted independently by 1 reviewer and cross-checked by a second reviewer for accuracy. Risk of bias was assessed with 2 tools: a customized checklist was used to examine sources of bias and ambiguity for adherence data, and the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool was used to assess the interval validity of studies. Data Synthesis: Seventeen trials with 1850 participants (mean age, 78.8 years) were included in the review. The pooled estimate of adherence to exercise programs post hip fracture was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.78-0.95). Programs that were more than 6 months in duration were associated with a decrease in adherence (odds ratio, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.11-0.77). However, increased adherence was not associated with improvements in functional outcomes. None of the other program characteristics were associated with improvements in functional outcomes. Conclusions: Adherence to exercise programs after hip fracture appears to be high and may be related to program duration. However, there is a need for a standardized approach to measure and report adherence data in future studies to determine whether exercise adherence is associated with improvements in function for this population.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1827-1838.e2
Number of pages14
JournalArchives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022


  • Exercise
  • General surgery
  • Hip
  • Rehabilitation

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