OBJECTIVE: To obtain parental perspectives on changes in sleep, breathing, quality of life (QOL), and neurobehavioral measures after adenotonsillectomy. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective cohort study comprised otherwise healthy children evaluated for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) from 1993 to 2001. We compared those children who underwent adenotonsillectomy with those children who did not. The parents of 473 children (292 boys) 2 years of age and older were sent questionnaires to evaluate QOL and clinical and behavioral changes. For 94 children 3 years of age and older, behavioral changes were evaluated using the Conners Parent Rating Scale-Revised (CPRS-R) for three different periods: pre-operatively/pre-polysomnography, postoperatively/postpolysomnography, and recently. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-six questionnaires were returned (35 ), 138 of which were complete with written consent provided. Compared with parents of unoperated children, parents of children who had adenotonsillectomy were more likely to report improvements in sleep, breathing, and QOL but not improvements in concentration, school performance, and intellectual or developmental progress. Both short and long term, there were no significant effects of adenotonsillectomy on any of the CPRS-R behavior subscales. CONCLUSION: From a parental perspective, adenotonsillectomy frequently improves sleep, breathing, and QOL but does not often improve neurobehavioral outcomes.