Acute toxicity is a dose-limiting factor for intravenous polymyxin B: A safety and pharmacokinetic study in healthy Chinese subjects

Xiaofen Liu, Yuancheng Chen, Haijing Yang, Jian Li, Jicheng Yu, Zhenwei Yu, Guoying Cao, Xiaojie Wu, Yu Wang, Hailan Wu, Yaxin Fan, Jingjing Wang, Jufang Wu, Yi Jin, Beining Guo, Jiali Hu, Xingchen Bian, Xin Li, Jing Zhang

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28 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives: Polymyxin B is a last-line antibiotic for multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacterial infections. However, limited safety and pharmacokinetic information is available. We investigated the safety and pharmacokinetics of intravenous polymyxin B in healthy subjects. Methods: An open-label, single-dose clinical trial was conducted in healthy Chinese subjects. Polymyxin B (sulphate) was administered intravenously at 0.75 or 1.5 mg/kg (n = 10 per dose, 5 males and 5 females) to examine the safety and pharmacokinetics. Results: One female subject in the 1.5-mg/kg group discontinued due to abdominal pain during administration. The most frequently reported adverse events were perioral paraesthesia, dizziness, and numbness of extremities (7/10 subjects in the 0.75-mg/kg group, all subjects in the 1.5-mg/kg group). All neurotoxicity-related events dissipated without treatment within a maximum of 23 h. Notably, abdominal pain (3/5) and vulvar pruritus (2/5), colpitis (2/5) or abnormal uterine bleeding (1/5) were reported in female subjects receiving the 1.5-mg/kg dose. In the 0.75-mg/kg group, the total clearance, volume of distribution and half-life of polymyxin B were 0.028±0.002 L/h/kg, 0.219±0.023 L/kg and 5.44±0.741 h, respectively; similar values were observed in the 1.5-mg/kg group. Urinary recovery was 3.7 ± 1.1% and 8.1 ± 1.3% in the 0.75- and 1.5-mg/kg groups, respectively. Population pharmacokinetics of polymyxin B was consistent with a three-compartment model. The clearance and distribution of the central compartment were 0.027 L/h/kg and 0.071 L/kg, respectively. Conclusions: This study is the first to examine the safety and pharmacokinetics of polymyxin B in healthy subjects. Our results highlight that acute toxicity is a dose-limiting factor for intravenous polymyxin B.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)207-215
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Infection
Volume82
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2021

Keywords

  • Neurotoxicity
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Polymyxin
  • Safety
  • Urinary recovery

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