Severe aortic stenosis induces abnormalities in central aortic pressure, with consequent impaired organ and tissue perfusion. Relief of aortic stenosis by transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is associated with both a short- and long-term hypertensive response. Counterintuitively, patients who are long-term normotensive post-TAVR have a worsened prognosis compared with patients with hypertension, yet the underlying mechanisms are not understood. We investigated immediate changes in invasively measured left ventricular and central aortic pressure post-TAVR in patients with severe aortic stenosis using aortic reservoir pressure, wave intensity analysis, and indices of aortic function. Fifty-four patients (mean age 83.6±6.2 years, 50.0% female) undergoing TAVR were included. We performed reservoir pressure and wave intensity analysis on invasively acquired pressure waveforms from the ascending aorta and left ventricle immediately pre- and post-TAVR. Following TAVR, there were increases in systolic, diastolic, mean, and pulse aortic pressures (all P<0.05). Post-TAVR reservoir pressure was unchanged (54.5±12.4 versus 56.6±14.0 mm Hg, P=0.30) whereas excess pressure increased 47% (29.0±10.9 versus 42.6±15.5 mm Hg, P<0.001). Wave intensity analysis (arbitrary units, au) demonstrated increased forward compression wave (64.9±35.5 versus 124.4±58.9, ×103 au, P<0.001), backward compression wave (11.6±5.5 versus 14.4±6.9, ×103 au, P=0.01) and forward expansion wave energies (43.2±27.3 versus 82.8±53.1, ×103 au, P<0.001). Subendocardial viability ratio improved with aortic function effectively unchanged post-TAVR. Increased central aortic pressure following TAVR relates to increased transmitted power and energy to the proximal aorta with increased excess pressure but unchanged reservoir pressure. These changes provide a potential mechanism for the improved prognosis associated with relative hypertension post-TAVR.
- blood pressure
- transcatheter aortic valve replacement