Objective. To further investigate the effects of interleukin-1 (IL-1) in immune-mediated joint inflammation, we examined the role of IL-2, Th1 interferon-γ (IFNγ), and Th2 (IL-4) cytokines, joint macrophages, and macrophage-derived cytokines (IL-12 p40, IL-6, leukemia inhibitory factor [LIF], oncostatin M [OSM], and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF]) im a CD4+ T lymphocyte-dependent model of acute arthritis. Methods. Methylated bovine serum albumin (mBSA)/IL-1-induced arthritis was elicited in wild-type, gene-knockout, and monoclonal antibody-treated mice. Synovial lining macrophages were selectively depleted by intraarticular injection of clodronate liposomes prior to disease induction. The severity of arthritis was assessed histologically. Results. Mice deficient in IL-2 were almost completely protected from arthritis, and neutralization of IL-4 reduced the severity of disease. In contrast, arthritis severity and resolution appeared to be independent of IFNγ. Synovial lining macrophage depletion markedly reduced arthritis severity. IL-6 or LIF deficiency was only modestly protective, although as previously reported, GM-CSF deficiency conferred profound disease resistance. IL-12 p40-deficient mice (which lack IL-12 and IL-23) and OSM receptor-deficient mice were susceptible to mBSA/IL-1-induced arthritis. Conclusion. Acute mBSA/IL-1-induced arthritis is dependent on IL-2 and IL-4, but not IFNγ. In vivo, the Th1/Th2 paradigm may be distorted by the presence of macrophage-derived cytokines such as IL-1. Synovial lining macrophages are essential in mBSA/IL-1-induced arthritis. However, the requirement for macrophage-derived cytokines is selective; that is, IL-6, LIF, and especially GM-CSF are necessary, but IL-12, IL-23, and OSM are dispensable. IL-1 may therefore influence both adaptive and innate immune mechanisms in acute inflammatory arthritis.