Myelin, the multilayered membrane surrounding many axons in the nervous system, increases the speed by which electrical signals travel along axons and facilitates neuronal communication between distant regions of the nervous system. However, how neuronal signals influence the myelinating process in the CNS is still largely unclear. Recent studies have significantly advanced this understanding, identifying important roles for neuronal activity in controlling oligodendrocyte development and their capacity of producing myelin in both developing and mature CNS. Here, we review these recent advances, and discuss potential mechanisms underpinning activity-dependent myelination and how remyelination may be stimulated via manipulating axonal activity, raising new questions for future research. (Figure presented.).
- neuronal activity