Activity and longevity of antibody in paper-based blood typing diagnostics

Clare A. Henderson, Heather McLiesh, Whui L. Then, Gil Garnier

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Paper-based diagnostics provide a low-cost, reliable and easy to use mode of blood typing. The shelf-life of such products, however, can be limited due to the reduced activity of reagent antibodies sorbed on the paper cellulose fibers. This study explores the effects of aging on antibody activity for periods up to 12 months on paper and in solution under different aging and drying conditions-air-dried, lyophilized, and kept as a liquid. Paper kept wet with undiluted antibody is shown to have the longest shelf-life and the clearest negatives. Antibody diluted with bovine serum albumin (BSA) protects against the lyophilization process, however, beyond 9 months aging, false positives are seen. Paper with air-dried antibodies is not suitable for use after 1 month aging. These results inform preparation and storage conditions for the development of long shelf-life blood grouping paper-based diagnostics.

Original languageEnglish
Article number193
Number of pages7
JournalFrontiers in Chemistry
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2018


  • Aging
  • Antibody
  • Blood typing
  • Paper diagnostic
  • Storage conditions

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