Activin A target genes are differentially expressed between normal and neoplastic adult human testes: clues to gonocyte fate choice

Maciej Szarek, Martin Bergmann, Lutz Konrad, Hans Christian Schuppe, Sabine Kliesch, Mark Peter Hedger, Katherine Ann Lakoski Loveland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Background: Human testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) arise from germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS) cells that originate from foetal germ cell precursors. Activin A is central to normal foetal testis development, and its dysregulation may contribute to TGCT aetiology. Objective: (i) To test whether the expression profiles of activin A targets in normal and neoplastic human testes indicates functional links with TGCT progression. (ii) To investigate whether activin A levels influence MMP activity in a neoplastic germ cell line. Materials and Methods: (1) Bouin's fixed, paraffin-embedded human testes were utilized for PCR-based transcript analysis and immunohistochemistry. Samples (n = 5 per group) contained the following: (i) normal spermatogenesis, (ii) GCNIS or (iii) seminoma. CXCL12, CCL17, MMP2 and MMP9 were investigated. (2) The human seminoma-derived TCam-2 cell line was exposed to activin A (24 h), and target transcripts were measured by qRT-PCR (n = 4). ELISA (n = 4) and gelatin zymography (n = 3) showed changes in protein level and enzyme activity, respectively. Results: (i) Cytoplasmic CXCL12 was detected in Sertoli and other somatic cells, including those surrounding seminoma cells. Anti-CCL17 labelled only the cytoplasm of Sertoli cells surrounding GCNIS, while anti-MMP2 and anti-MMP9 labelled germline and epithelial-like cells in normal and neoplastic testes. (ii) Exposing TCam-2 cells to activin A (50 ng/mL) elevated MMP2 and MMP9 transcripts (fourfold and 30-fold), while only MMP2 protein levels were significantly higher after activin A (5 ng/mL and 50 ng/mL) exposure. Importantly, gelatin zymography revealed activin A increased production of activated MMP2. Discussion: Detection of CCL17 only in GCNIS tumours may reflect a change in Sertoli cell phenotype to a less mature state. Stimulation of MMP2 activity by activin A in TCam-2 cells suggests activin influences TGCT by modulating the tumour niche. Conclusion: This knowledge provides a basis for understanding how physiological changes that influence activin/TGF-β superfamily signalling may alter germ cell fate.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)31-41
Number of pages11
JournalAndrology
Volume7
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019

Keywords

  • activin A
  • chemokine
  • matrix metalloproteinase
  • neoplasia
  • testicular germ cell tumours

Cite this

Szarek, Maciej ; Bergmann, Martin ; Konrad, Lutz ; Schuppe, Hans Christian ; Kliesch, Sabine ; Hedger, Mark Peter ; Loveland, Katherine Ann Lakoski. / Activin A target genes are differentially expressed between normal and neoplastic adult human testes : clues to gonocyte fate choice. In: Andrology. 2019 ; Vol. 7, No. 1. pp. 31-41.
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title = "Activin A target genes are differentially expressed between normal and neoplastic adult human testes: clues to gonocyte fate choice",
abstract = "Background: Human testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) arise from germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS) cells that originate from foetal germ cell precursors. Activin A is central to normal foetal testis development, and its dysregulation may contribute to TGCT aetiology. Objective: (i) To test whether the expression profiles of activin A targets in normal and neoplastic human testes indicates functional links with TGCT progression. (ii) To investigate whether activin A levels influence MMP activity in a neoplastic germ cell line. Materials and Methods: (1) Bouin's fixed, paraffin-embedded human testes were utilized for PCR-based transcript analysis and immunohistochemistry. Samples (n = 5 per group) contained the following: (i) normal spermatogenesis, (ii) GCNIS or (iii) seminoma. CXCL12, CCL17, MMP2 and MMP9 were investigated. (2) The human seminoma-derived TCam-2 cell line was exposed to activin A (24 h), and target transcripts were measured by qRT-PCR (n = 4). ELISA (n = 4) and gelatin zymography (n = 3) showed changes in protein level and enzyme activity, respectively. Results: (i) Cytoplasmic CXCL12 was detected in Sertoli and other somatic cells, including those surrounding seminoma cells. Anti-CCL17 labelled only the cytoplasm of Sertoli cells surrounding GCNIS, while anti-MMP2 and anti-MMP9 labelled germline and epithelial-like cells in normal and neoplastic testes. (ii) Exposing TCam-2 cells to activin A (50 ng/mL) elevated MMP2 and MMP9 transcripts (fourfold and 30-fold), while only MMP2 protein levels were significantly higher after activin A (5 ng/mL and 50 ng/mL) exposure. Importantly, gelatin zymography revealed activin A increased production of activated MMP2. Discussion: Detection of CCL17 only in GCNIS tumours may reflect a change in Sertoli cell phenotype to a less mature state. Stimulation of MMP2 activity by activin A in TCam-2 cells suggests activin influences TGCT by modulating the tumour niche. Conclusion: This knowledge provides a basis for understanding how physiological changes that influence activin/TGF-β superfamily signalling may alter germ cell fate.",
keywords = "activin A, chemokine, matrix metalloproteinase, neoplasia, testicular germ cell tumours",
author = "Maciej Szarek and Martin Bergmann and Lutz Konrad and Schuppe, {Hans Christian} and Sabine Kliesch and Hedger, {Mark Peter} and Loveland, {Katherine Ann Lakoski}",
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Activin A target genes are differentially expressed between normal and neoplastic adult human testes : clues to gonocyte fate choice. / Szarek, Maciej; Bergmann, Martin; Konrad, Lutz; Schuppe, Hans Christian; Kliesch, Sabine; Hedger, Mark Peter; Loveland, Katherine Ann Lakoski.

In: Andrology, Vol. 7, No. 1, 01.01.2019, p. 31-41.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Activin A target genes are differentially expressed between normal and neoplastic adult human testes

T2 - clues to gonocyte fate choice

AU - Szarek, Maciej

AU - Bergmann, Martin

AU - Konrad, Lutz

AU - Schuppe, Hans Christian

AU - Kliesch, Sabine

AU - Hedger, Mark Peter

AU - Loveland, Katherine Ann Lakoski

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - Background: Human testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) arise from germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS) cells that originate from foetal germ cell precursors. Activin A is central to normal foetal testis development, and its dysregulation may contribute to TGCT aetiology. Objective: (i) To test whether the expression profiles of activin A targets in normal and neoplastic human testes indicates functional links with TGCT progression. (ii) To investigate whether activin A levels influence MMP activity in a neoplastic germ cell line. Materials and Methods: (1) Bouin's fixed, paraffin-embedded human testes were utilized for PCR-based transcript analysis and immunohistochemistry. Samples (n = 5 per group) contained the following: (i) normal spermatogenesis, (ii) GCNIS or (iii) seminoma. CXCL12, CCL17, MMP2 and MMP9 were investigated. (2) The human seminoma-derived TCam-2 cell line was exposed to activin A (24 h), and target transcripts were measured by qRT-PCR (n = 4). ELISA (n = 4) and gelatin zymography (n = 3) showed changes in protein level and enzyme activity, respectively. Results: (i) Cytoplasmic CXCL12 was detected in Sertoli and other somatic cells, including those surrounding seminoma cells. Anti-CCL17 labelled only the cytoplasm of Sertoli cells surrounding GCNIS, while anti-MMP2 and anti-MMP9 labelled germline and epithelial-like cells in normal and neoplastic testes. (ii) Exposing TCam-2 cells to activin A (50 ng/mL) elevated MMP2 and MMP9 transcripts (fourfold and 30-fold), while only MMP2 protein levels were significantly higher after activin A (5 ng/mL and 50 ng/mL) exposure. Importantly, gelatin zymography revealed activin A increased production of activated MMP2. Discussion: Detection of CCL17 only in GCNIS tumours may reflect a change in Sertoli cell phenotype to a less mature state. Stimulation of MMP2 activity by activin A in TCam-2 cells suggests activin influences TGCT by modulating the tumour niche. Conclusion: This knowledge provides a basis for understanding how physiological changes that influence activin/TGF-β superfamily signalling may alter germ cell fate.

AB - Background: Human testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) arise from germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS) cells that originate from foetal germ cell precursors. Activin A is central to normal foetal testis development, and its dysregulation may contribute to TGCT aetiology. Objective: (i) To test whether the expression profiles of activin A targets in normal and neoplastic human testes indicates functional links with TGCT progression. (ii) To investigate whether activin A levels influence MMP activity in a neoplastic germ cell line. Materials and Methods: (1) Bouin's fixed, paraffin-embedded human testes were utilized for PCR-based transcript analysis and immunohistochemistry. Samples (n = 5 per group) contained the following: (i) normal spermatogenesis, (ii) GCNIS or (iii) seminoma. CXCL12, CCL17, MMP2 and MMP9 were investigated. (2) The human seminoma-derived TCam-2 cell line was exposed to activin A (24 h), and target transcripts were measured by qRT-PCR (n = 4). ELISA (n = 4) and gelatin zymography (n = 3) showed changes in protein level and enzyme activity, respectively. Results: (i) Cytoplasmic CXCL12 was detected in Sertoli and other somatic cells, including those surrounding seminoma cells. Anti-CCL17 labelled only the cytoplasm of Sertoli cells surrounding GCNIS, while anti-MMP2 and anti-MMP9 labelled germline and epithelial-like cells in normal and neoplastic testes. (ii) Exposing TCam-2 cells to activin A (50 ng/mL) elevated MMP2 and MMP9 transcripts (fourfold and 30-fold), while only MMP2 protein levels were significantly higher after activin A (5 ng/mL and 50 ng/mL) exposure. Importantly, gelatin zymography revealed activin A increased production of activated MMP2. Discussion: Detection of CCL17 only in GCNIS tumours may reflect a change in Sertoli cell phenotype to a less mature state. Stimulation of MMP2 activity by activin A in TCam-2 cells suggests activin influences TGCT by modulating the tumour niche. Conclusion: This knowledge provides a basis for understanding how physiological changes that influence activin/TGF-β superfamily signalling may alter germ cell fate.

KW - activin A

KW - chemokine

KW - matrix metalloproteinase

KW - neoplasia

KW - testicular germ cell tumours

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DO - 10.1111/andr.12553

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JO - Andrology

JF - Andrology

SN - 2047-2919

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