Accuracy of Gallium-68 Pentixafor Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography for Subtyping Diagnosis of Primary Aldosteronism

Jinbo Hu, Tingting Xu, Hang Shen, Ying Song, Jun Yang, Aipin Zhang, Haoyuan Ding, Naiguo Xing, Zhuoyuan Li, Lin Qiu, Linqiang Ma, Yi Yang, Zhengping Feng, Zhipeng Du, Wenwen He, Yue Sun, Jun Cai, Qifu Li, Yue Chen, Shumin Yangfor the Chongqing Primary Aldosteronism Study (CONPASS) Group

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Importance: Adrenal vein sampling (AVS) is the recommended procedure for subtyping primary aldosteronism (PA) as unilateral PA (UPA) or bilateral PA (BPA), with different treatment needed for each: adrenalectomy for UPA and medication for BPA. However, AVS is invasive and technically difficult, and how to subtype PA noninvasively is currently a great challenge. Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of gallium-68 pentixafor positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) in subtyping PA using AVS as a reference standard. Design, Setting, and Participants: This diagnostic study was conducted at a tertiary hospital in China among patients diagnosed with PA. Enrollment was started in November 2021, with follow-up ending in May 2022. Exposures: : Patients were recruited to undergo gallium-68 pentixafor PET-CT and AVS. Main Outcomes and Measures: Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of each adrenal gland during PET-CT was measured to calculate the lateralization index of SUVmax. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC), specificity, and sensitivity were used to analyze the accuracy of the lateralization index based on SUVmax for subtyping PA. Results: Among 100 patients with PA who completed the study (47 female [47.0%] and 53 male [53.0%]; median [IQR] age, 49 [38-56] years), 43 individuals had UPA and 57 individuals had BPA. Aldosterone-cortisol ratio (Spearman ρ = 0.26; P < .001) in adrenal veins was positively correlated with SUVmax of adrenal glands at 10 minutes during PET-CT. Using lateralization index based on SUVmax at 10 minutes to identify UPA, the AUROC was 0.90 (95% CI, 0.83-0.97). A cutoff value for lateralization index based on SUVmax at 10 minutes set at 1.65 conferred a specificity of 1.00 (95% CI, 0.94-1.00) and sensitivity of 0.77 (95% CI, 0.61-0.88). The diagnostic concordance rate of PET-CT and AVS was 90 patients (90.0%) compared with 54 patients (54.0%) between traditional CT and AVS. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found good diagnostic accuracy of gallium-68 pentixafor PET-CT in differentiating UPA from BPA. These findings suggest that gallium-68 pentixafor PET-CT may be used to avoid invasive AVS in some patients with PA.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere2255609
Number of pages13
JournalJAMA Network Open
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 16 Feb 2023

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