Ability of self-reported estimates of dietary sodium, potassium and protein to detect an association with general and abdominal obesity: Comparison with the estimates derived from 24' h urinary excretion

Kentaro Murakami, M. Barbara E Livingstone, Satoshi Sasaki, Kazuhiro Uenishi, the Japan Dietetic Students’ Study for Nutrition and Biomarkers Group

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As under-reporting of dietary intake, particularly by overweight and obese subjects, is common in dietary surveys, biases inherent in the use of self-reported dietary information may distort true diet-obesity relationships or even create spurious ones. However, empirical evidence of this possibility is limited. The present cross-sectional study compared the relationships of 24' h urine-derived and self-reported intakes of Na, K and protein with obesity. A total of 1043 Japanese women aged 18-22 years completed a 24' h urine collection and a self-administered diet history questionnaire. After adjustment for potential confounders, 24' h urine-derived Na intake was associated with a higher risk of general obesity (BMI ≥' 25' kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥' 80' cm; both P for trend' =' 0·04). For 24' h urine-derived protein intake, positive associations with general and abdominal obesity were observed (P for trend' =' 0·02 and 0·053, respectively). For 24' h urine-derived K intake, there was an inverse association with abdominal obesity (P for trend' =' 0·01). Conversely, when self-reported dietary information was used, only inverse associations between K intake and general and abdominal obesity were observed (P for trend' =' 0·04 and 0·02, respectively), with no associations of Na or protein intake. In conclusion, we found positive associations of Na and protein intakes and inverse associations of K intake with obesity when using 24' h urinary excretion for estimating dietary intakes. However, no association was observed based on using self-reported dietary intakes, except for inverse association of K intake, suggesting that the ability of self-reported dietary information using the diet history questionnaire for investigating diet-obesity relationships is limited.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1308-1318
Number of pages11
JournalBritish Journal of Nutrition
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 28 Apr 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • 24' h Urine
  • Obesity
  • Protein
  • Sodium

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