Carboxypeptidase, vitellogenic-like (CPVL) is a serine carboxypeptidase of unknown function that was first characterized in human macrophages. Initial studies suggested that CPVL is largely restricted to the monocytic lineage, although it may also be expressed by cells outside the immune system. Here, we use a new monoclonal antibody to characterize the properties and localization of CPVL in human macrophages to elucidate a possible function for the protease. CPVL is up-regulated during the maturation of monocytes (MO) to macrophages, although the protein can be seen in both. In primary macrophages, CPVL is glycosylated with high mannose residues and colocalizes with markers for endoplasmic reticulum, while in MO it is more disperse and less clearly associated with endoplasmic reticulum. CPVL is highly expressed in lamellipodia and membrane ruffles, which also concentrate markers of the secretory pathway (MIP-1α and tumour necrosis factor-α) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II molecules. CPVL can be seen on early latex bead and Candida albicans phagosomes, but it is not retained in the maturing phagosome, unlike MHC class I/II. CPVL has a mixed cytosolic and membrane-associated localization but is not detectable on the outer plasma membrane. We propose that CPVL may be involved in antigen processing, the secretory pathway and/or in actin remodelling and lamellipodium formation.
- Antigen processing/presentation
- Membrane ruffles
- Secretory pathway
- Serine carboxypeptidase