A verified model of laser direct metal deposition using an analytical enthalpy balance method

Andrew J. Pinkerton, Richard Moat, Kamran Shah, Lin Li, Michael Preuss, Philip J. Withers

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference PaperOther

14 Citations (Scopus)


Analytical modelling of a quasi-stationary laser melt pool without mass addition can be achieved using relatively simple moving surface heat flux solutions. However, including mass addition from a coaxial powder stream alters the laser flux and energy and mass flow pathways and often leads to the problem being modelled using numerical methods. The model described in this paper combines an analytical beam attenuation model to account for beam powder interaction above the melt pool with series of standard solutions for a moving Gaussian heat source to calculate melt pool size and substrate isotherms. A negative enthalpy method is used to compensate for the mass addition to the melt pool. The model is verified using a variety of methods and can predict powder stream mass and temperature distribution at the substrate and final melt pool shape in three dimensions from the major laser direct metal deposition process variables. The model highlights the role of beam-powder interaction in the process.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication26th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics, ICALEO 2007 - Congress Proceedings
PublisherLaser Institute of America
ISBN (Print)9780912035888
Publication statusPublished - 2007
Externally publishedYes
EventInternational Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics 2007 - Orlando, United States of America
Duration: 29 Oct 20071 Nov 2007
Conference number: 26th


ConferenceInternational Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics 2007
Abbreviated titleICALEO 2007
Country/TerritoryUnited States of America


  • Analytical model
  • Direct metal deposition
  • Laser
  • Powder stream

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