A user equilibrium-based fast-charging location model considering heterogeneous vehicles in urban networks

Cong Quoc Tran, Dong Ngoduy, Mehdi Keyvan-Ekbatani, David Watling

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Inappropriate deployment of charging stations not only hinders the mass adoption of Electric Vehicles (EVs) but also increases the total system costs. This paper attempts to address the problem of identifying the optimal locations of fast-charging stations in the urban network of mixed gasoline and electric vehicles with respect to the traffic equilibrium flows and the EVs' penetration. A bi-level optimization framework is proposed in which the upper level aims to locate charging stations by minimizing the total travel time and the installation costs for charging infrastructures. On the other hand, the lower-level captures re-routing behaviours of travellers with their driving ranges. A cross-entropy approach is developed to deliver the solutions with different levels of EVs' penetration. Finally, numerical studies are performed to demonstrate the fast convergence of the proposed framework and provide insights into the impact of EVs' proportion in the network and the optimal location solution on the global system cost.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)439-461
Number of pages23
JournalTransportmetrica A: Transport Science
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • bi-level optimization
  • cross-entropy method
  • Electric vehicles
  • fast-charging stations
  • user equilibrium

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