A systematic review of cardiac time intervals utilising non-invasive fetal electrocardiogram in normal fetuses

Vinayak Smith, Senthuran Arunthavanathan, Amrish Nair, Diane Ansermet, Fabricio Da Silva Costa, Euan Morrison Wallace

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Non-invasive fetal electrocardiogram (NIFECG) is an evolving technology in fetal surveillance which is attracting increasing research interest. There is however, only limited data outlining the reference ranges for normal cardiac time intervals (CTIs). The objective of our group was to carry out a systematic review to outline normal fetal CTIs using NIFECG. Methods: A systematic review of peer reviewed literature was performed, searching PUBMED,Ovid MEDLINE and EMBASE. The outcomes of interest included fetal CTIs (P wave duration, PR interval, QRS duration and QT interval) and a descriptive summary of relevant studies as well. The outcomes were grouped as early pre-term (≤ 32 weeks), moderate to late pre-term (32-37 weeks) and term (37-41 weeks). Results: 8 studies were identified as suitable for inclusion. Reference ranges of CTIs were generated. Both PR interval and QRS duration demonstrated a linear correlation with advancing gestation. Several studies also demonstrated a reduction in signal acquisition between 27 and 32 weeks due to the attenuation by vernix caseosa. In this group, both the P wave and T waves were difficult to detect due to signal strength and interference. Conclusion: NIFECG demonstrates utility to quantify CTIs in the fetus, particularly at advanced gestations. Larger prospective studies should be directed towards establishing reliable CTIs across various gestations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number370
Number of pages15
JournalBMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 12 Sept 2018


  • Cardiac time intervals
  • Fetal electrocardiogram
  • Non-invasive fetal monitoring

Cite this