A systematic review of age, sex, ethnicity, and race as predictors of violent recidivism

Alex R. Piquero, Wesley G. Jennings, Brie Diamond, Jennifer M. Reingle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

45 Citations (Scopus)


Recidivism of released prisoners, especially violent recidivism, is an important policy issue. Equally important is an understanding of how demographic risk factors may act as moderators of recidivism. Knowledge of such relationships is important in developing a deeper theoretical understanding of the risk of recidivism as well as identifying points of intervention that may need to be re-oriented to reduce recidivism. The present study conducts a meta-analytic review of the violent recidivism literature focusing on the role of several demographic risk factors. Findings show that age, sex, and race (Whites) were significantly related to violent recidivism. Implications and directions for future research are identified.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5-26
Number of pages22
JournalInternational Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • demographic risk factors
  • meta-analysis
  • recidivism
  • violence

Cite this